ASTM D790 & ISO 178
Most commonly the specimen lies on a support span and the load is applied to the center by the loading nose producing three point bending at a specified rate. The parameters for this test are the support span, the speed of the loading, and the maximum deflection for the test. These parameters are based on the test specimen thickness and are defined differently by ASTM and ISO. For ASTM D790, the test is stopped when the specimen reaches 5% deflection or the specimen breaks before 5%. For ISO 178, the test is stopped when the specimen breaks. Of the specimen does not break, the test is continued as far a possible and the stress at 3.5% (conventional deflection) is reported.
1.1 These test methods are used to determine the flexural properties of unreinforced and reinforced plastics, including high modulus composites and electrical insulating materials utilizing a three-point loading system to apply a load to a simply supported beam (specimen). The method is generally applicable to both rigid and semi-rigid materials, but flexural strength cannot be determined for those materials that do not break or yield in the outer surface of the test specimen within the 5.0 % strain limit.
1.2 Test specimens of rectangular cross section are injection molded or, cut from molded or extruded sheets or plates, or cut from molded or extruded shapes. Specimens must be solid and uniformly rectangular. The specimen rests on two supports and is loaded by means of a loading nose midway between the supports.
1.3 Measure deflection in one of two ways; using crosshead position or a deflectometer. Please note that studies have shown that deflection data obtained with a deflectometer will differ from data obtained using crosshead position. The method of deflection measurement shall be reported.
NOTE 1: Requirements for quality control in production environments are usually met by measuring deflection using crosshead position. However, more accurate measurement may be obtained by using an deflection indicator such as a deflectometer.
NOTE 2: Materials that do not rupture by the maximum strain allowed under this test method may be more suited to a 4-point bend test. The basic difference between the two test methods is in the location of the maximum bending moment and maximum axial fiber stresses. The maximum axial fiber stresses occur on a line under the loading nose in 3-point bending and over the area between the loading noses in 4-point bending. A four-point loading system method can be found in Test Method .
1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values provided in parentheses are for information only.
1.5 The text of this standard references notes and footnotes that provide explanatory material. These notes and footnotes (excluding those in tables and figures) shall not be considered as requirements of the standard.
1.6This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
NOTE 3: This standard and ISO 178 address the same subject matter, but differ in technical content.